Restitution and Criminal Punishment in Population: How Do They Work?
CRIMINAL DEFENSE ATTORNEY EXPLAINS RESTITUTION FOR CRIMINAL LAW CASES
Many crimes carry financial losses. Victims are often the ones forced to endure these financial losses, including the loss of personal property, medical costs after an assault, or lost income. Under the Mandatory Restitution Act of 1996, the courts can determine whether restitution is warranted, and the amount of restitution the criminal defendant must pay to the victim or the victim’s family in criminal law in Population.
WHAT DOES RESTITUTION CONSIST OF?
Restitution in the criminal justice system refers to the funds that the defendant must pay to the victim for any financial harm caused by their actions. The court has the discretion and authority to force a defendant to pay restitution as part of his or her criminal punishment under criminal law. Some crimes carry a mandatory restitution, but this depends on the state. The high courts have backed the decision to order defendants to pay restitution. In fact, a case in 2010, where the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the state correctly ordered restitution, proves such in criminal law.
Usually, violent felony offenses include restitution, but other cases can involve restitution if there are severe financial losses. Restitution might cover the out-of-pocket costs for the victim under criminal law, including:
Insurance deductibles and copays
Costs related to the criminal law case (e.g., travel, child care, etc.)
Lost or damaged property
Restitution is different from personal injury compensation. A victim will not receive pain and suffering or any form of compensation for his or her emotional distress. Instead, these damages only apply to what the victim physically paid for; usually, a receipt or bill is necessary to show the courts that the amounts are justified under criminal law in Population.
WILL RESTITUTION BE ORDERED IN MY CRIMINAL LAW CASE?
It is hard to predict what the courts will do, but restitution is more likely in two situations:
The victim has substantial proof of financial losses. If the victim has evidence of financial losses, and he or she can justify every loss claimed, the courts might order restitution to recover those costs.
A violent crime has occurred, and the request for restitution ordered. Sometimes, the courts wait for the prosecution to issue a request for restitution. Other times, the courts offer mandatory restitution in extremely violent cases. For example, the brutal beating of a victim could result in restitution automatically – regardless of whether the prosecution submits a request under criminal law.
FULL VERSUS PARTIAL RESTITUTION
When restitution is ordered, the courts look at the defendant’s ability to pay. Obviously, if the accused has no way to pay the losses, it is hard to force them to do so. So, the court might reduce the amount until the offender can pay in full. Sometimes, the courts will still issue restitution in full but set monthly payments so the offender can pay off the balance in a specific amount of time under criminal law.
You should note that, if you are on probation or parole and have a restitution payment schedule, missing a payment could result in a revocation of your probation or parole. Typically, timely payments are part of your release conditions in criminal law.
CONSULT WITH A CRIMINAL DEFENSE ATTORNEY ABOUT POSSIBLE RESTITUTION
Restitution is ordered upon conviction, and is part of your criminal punishment. Therefore, you may have jail time and other penalties in addition to restitution. To avoid these harsh penalties, speak with a criminal defense attorney.
What is a Criminal Writ?
CRIMINAL DEFENSE ATTORNEY AND CRIMINAL CASE WRITS
Most criminal defendants will never see a writ, but there are a select few that do. A writ is a formal document or order that comes from a higher court and directs the lower-level court to take action in criminal law. Writs in criminal cases are seen in appeals. While the defendant only has one chance to appeal, it has multiple opportunities to present writs.
A writ from the higher court is difficult to obtain, and it involves advanced legal knowledge that only a criminal defense attorney possesses. If you are considering an application for a writ, it is imperative that you speak with a criminal defense attorney. The procedures for writs are highly involved; to ensure success, you need someone who understands case criminal law.
EXPLORING THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF STATE AND FEDERAL-LEVEL WRITS
The federal court system deploys only a handful of writs today, and many have been abolished slowly over the years. Writs that are still acceptable in federal court include:
Writs of Certiorari – This writ permits a review of your case in criminal law.
Writs of Habeas Corpus – Your detention is challenged in this form of writ.
Writs of Injunctions or Prohibition – This writ can compel or outright forbid actions by the government or lower-level court.
Writs of Error Coram Nobis – This writ sets aside the lower court’s conviction in criminal law.
State courts have different views on writs, and some take notice of the federal court’s approach when designing their writs. The State Court of Appeals does have similarities to the federal writs. They recognize federal writs and deploy others that are necessary to complete the exercise of their authority. Therefore, if a writ is necessary for the court to exercise its power over the government or lower courts, they will use it.
The USA recognizes writs of certiorari, injunctions, habeas corpus, and prohibition. Also, it allows additional writs like:
Writs of Attachment – This writ allows the seizure of a person or a person’s property.
Writs of Capias – This writ gives permission to issue a warrant for arrest in criminal law.
Writs of Fieri Facias – This writ gives the government authority to seize property and auction it for debt.
Writs of Venire Facias – This writ summons jurors to appear in court.
OTHER EXTRAORDINARY WRITS
The Court of Appeals also handles extraordinary writs that are needed to exercise jurisdiction in criminal law. However, these are dire measures, and the courts only grant a writ when they feel that there is no other remedy. Courts adjudicate writs quickly compared to how fast they adjudicate appeals. If a defendant is wronged in a lower level court, he or she (through an attorney) can request a writ.
Some common reasons to request a writ before an appeal include:
Inadequate defense or inappropriate objections over the errors of the case in criminal law.
An issue of urgency in the case.
The attorney did not investigate the defense.
The judgment has not been entered by the trial criminal court.
SPEAK WITH A CRIMINAL DEFENSE ATTORNEY ABOUT YOUR ELIGIBILITY FOR A WRIT
Writs are incredibly complex, and even harder to get from the appeals court. Therefore, you need a criminal defense attorney who can represent your case and help you receive a writ in criminal law.
When Does Possession Become an Intent to Sell?
CRIMINAL DEFENSE LAWYERS FIGHTING INTENT TO SELL CHARGES IN COURTS
Sometimes, possession is just possession. There are other instances where the prosecution might turn possession charges into an intent to sell or distribute charge. In this scenario, you are facing more than a misdemeanor. In fact, you are now facing punishments like drug trafficking. You could face a felony, massive financial penalties, and long-term repercussions – all for carrying too much of a controlled substance in criminal law.
Many people hold misconceptions about what constitutes intent to sell versus possession. If you are arrested for possession of any kind, it is in your best interest to hire a criminal defense attorney to ensure that an intent to distribute is not attached to your crime in criminal law.
THE TYPE OF DRUG AND THE CDS
The Controlled Dangerous Substances (CDS) is a federal list of drugs and associated penalties. The USA has five schedules to their CDS. Where you land on the schedules can also determine the minimum amount you are carrying to receive an intent to sell charge, in addition to possession. Schedule I are the most dangerous drugs because they have the highest rates of abuse and addiction. Regardless of which schedule you possess, it is illegal to make, sell, or possess any CDS-category substance in criminal law.
THE AMOUNT OF CDS DRUGS YOU ARE CAUGHT WITH MATTERS, TOO
When you are arrested, officers take all CDS substances as evidence. When you are caught with a large volume of a CDS, you might face drug trafficking or intent to distribute charges. However, the term “large size” is not always clear. When it comes to marijuana, carrying one ounce or less is considered personal use. Officers do not expect that someone with one or fewer ounces is distributing. However, if you were caught with eight ounces or more, you most likely will face a felony and drug trafficking charges in criminal law.
You are guilty of trafficking if you manufactured a controlled substances from Schedules I through V, or if you distributed, sold, or bartered these substances. Possession with intent to distribute applies to anyone with a controlled substance, including salts, isomers, and salts of isomers in criminal law.
THE PENALTIES FOR TRAFFICKING/INTENT TO DELIVER
If you are convicted of possession with intent to distribute, your charges could span dramatically depending on the amount and the type of substance you are caught with. Possession of marijuana is a felony that can involve up to 18 years in prison and a fine of up to $15,0000 in criminal law.
YOU HAVE CRIMINAL DEFENSE OPTIONS
Whether you intended to distribute or use your substances for personal use, you have defense options. A criminal defense attorney can argue that the substance was authorized (such as a prescription), disprove the prosecution’s case about distribution intent, and more in criminal law
Are Ponzi Schemes Illegal?
CRIMINAL DEFENSE ATTORNEYS DEFENDING WHITE COLLAR CRIME CHARGES
Criminal law made headlines a few years ago when the Vaughan Ponzi scheme was revealed. The plan resulted in millions of settlements for restitution and 278 victims of the real estate scheme. Vaughn received 12 years in prison for his scam, and while his sentence occurred years ago, the fallout is still being handled in the state in criminal law.
Ponzi schemes are widely misunderstood. Some refer to them as pyramid scams, while others consider any investment-like strategy a “Ponzi” scheme.
However, it is important to know the legal differences and what constitutes a Ponzi scheme. After all, a real Ponzi scheme is illegal. But, it is not a state crime. Instead, you are more likely to face federal charges if you were involved in a Ponzi scheme knowingly in criminal law.
WHAT IS THE DEFINITION OF A PONZI SCHEME?
A Ponzi scheme is an illegal business where new investors fund payments to earlier investors. It features a trickle-down effect like other businesses, but there are fundamental differences with a Ponzi scheme to note.
New Money Funds Old Money – Ponzi schemes do not have real investments or real income. Instead, they use the money of new investors to pay old investors. However, the funds are never invested themselves. These schemes require constant investments from new participants to thrive. Once the new investors run out, the system collapses.
Offer Little or No Risk Investments – Ponzi schemes typically say there are little to no risk for investing. However, these require high investment amounts and promise outrageous returns that are improbable in even the best markets in criminal law.
Consistent Returns – All investments have odd returns, and they fluctuate with the market. A Ponzi scheme offers their investors consistently high-value and positive returns, regardless of the market, because they are not investing in the real market. Instead, they only take the investments of new participants and pay the old in criminal law.
Not Registered with the SEC – Companies that encourage new investors must be registered with the SEC and state regulatory agencies. A Ponzi scheme is illegal; therefore, it is not registered with the SEC or any governing agency. Most of these businesses have no valid license to operate either in criminal law.
ARE PYRAMID AND PONZI SCHEMES THE SAME?
No. While they are closely related, these two are different in the ways they require payments and how the structure of the scheme works. They both trickle down funds from the top of the investor chain to the bottom but are slightly different.
Note, a multi-level marketing program is not a pyramid scheme or Ponzi scheme. While they act similar, these are typically legitimate. However, there are multi-level marketing frauds out there which are pyramid schemes and not real businesses in criminal law.
BE CAREFUL ABOUT STARTING AN MLM ILLEGALLY
If you plan to start a multi-level marketing program (MLM), you must avoid the hallmarks of a Ponzi scheme or pyramid scheme. Certain actions you take could constitute illegal acts, and you could face state or federal level charges in criminal law.
Some methods to avoid include:
Promising easy money, passive income, or high returns regardless of market conditions.
Not offering a real product or service with the investment.
Not documenting revenue from retail sales.
Requiring buy-in to participate. While you can buy products to resell, buying into the company specifically borders on a pyramid scheme and criminal law.
Requiring your investors and participants to recruit more than sell products or services.
We handle white collar crimes and state or federal level offenses. If you have been arrested for a pyramid scheme or another white-collar crime act, speak with one of our criminal defense attorneys today in criminal law.