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Restitution and Criminal Punishment in Population: How Do They Work?

CRIMINAL DEFENSE ATTORNEY EXPLAINS RESTITUTION FOR CRIMINAL LAW CASES

Many crimes carry financial losses. Victims are often the ones forced to endure these financial losses, including the loss of personal property, medical costs after an assault, or lost income. Under the Mandatory Restitution Act of 1996, the courts can determine whether restitution is warranted, and the amount of restitution the criminal defendant must pay to the victim or the victim’s family in criminal law in Population.

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WHAT DOES RESTITUTION CONSIST OF?

Restitution in the criminal justice system refers to the funds that the defendant must pay to the victim for any financial harm caused by their actions. The court has the discretion and authority to force a defendant to pay restitution as part of his or her criminal punishment under criminal law. Some crimes carry a mandatory restitution, but this depends on the state. The high courts have backed the decision to order defendants to pay restitution. In fact, a case in 2010, where the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the state correctly ordered restitution, proves such in criminal law.
Usually, violent felony offenses include restitution, but other cases can involve restitution if there are severe financial losses. Restitution might cover the out-of-pocket costs for the victim under criminal law, including:

Lost wages
Counseling
Prescription
Therapy costs
Medical expenses
Insurance deductibles and copays
Costs related to the criminal law case (e.g., travel, child care, etc.)
Crime-scene cleanup
Lost or damaged property

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Restitution is different from personal injury compensation. A victim will not receive pain and suffering or any form of compensation for his or her emotional distress. Instead, these damages only apply to what the victim physically paid for; usually, a receipt or bill is necessary to show the courts that the amounts are justified under criminal law in Population.

WILL RESTITUTION BE ORDERED IN MY CRIMINAL LAW CASE?

It is hard to predict what the courts will do, but restitution is more likely in two situations:

The victim has substantial proof of financial losses. If the victim has evidence of financial losses, and he or she can justify every loss claimed, the courts might order restitution to recover those costs.
A violent crime has occurred, and the request for restitution ordered. Sometimes, the courts wait for the prosecution to issue a request for restitution. Other times, the courts offer mandatory restitution in extremely violent cases. For example, the brutal beating of a victim could result in restitution automatically – regardless of whether the prosecution submits a request under criminal law.

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FULL VERSUS PARTIAL RESTITUTION

When restitution is ordered, the courts look at the defendant’s ability to pay. Obviously, if the accused has no way to pay the losses, it is hard to force them to do so. So, the court might reduce the amount until the offender can pay in full. Sometimes, the courts will still issue restitution in full but set monthly payments so the offender can pay off the balance in a specific amount of time under criminal law.

You should note that, if you are on probation or parole and have a restitution payment schedule, missing a payment could result in a revocation of your probation or parole. Typically, timely payments are part of your release conditions in criminal law.

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CONSULT WITH A CRIMINAL DEFENSE ATTORNEY ABOUT POSSIBLE RESTITUTION

Restitution is ordered upon conviction, and is part of your criminal punishment. Therefore, you may have jail time and other penalties in addition to restitution. To avoid these harsh penalties, speak with a criminal defense attorney.

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Accomplices, Accessories, Aiders, and Abettors 101

Offers of Leniency: Will a Confession Decrease Your Charges? CRIMINAL DEFENSE ATTORNEY DISCUSSES CONFESSIONS AND THEIR EFFECT IN COURTS During an interrogation, officers use one common tactic to elicit a confession: An offer of leniency. They might tell you that they can lower your charges if you confess. However, there is a kicker – your confession must be voluntary. So, it is important that you understand your rights, and what might happen if you do confess in hopes of lesser charges in criminal law. PSYCHOLOGICAL PRESSURE EQUATES TO INVOLUNTARY CONFESSIONS It is your right not to be pressured into a confession. Police officers using psychological persuasion – including an offer of lesser charges – is considered pressuring you. That is why statements produced through the promise of leniency are disregarded by the courts. So, your confession would likely be inadmissible in criminal law. However, your statement must be the product of an offer of compromise, whether expressed or implied. Offers that could result in an inadmissible confession include: The promise of immunity; The guarantee of a reduced sentence; or An offer to dismiss the charges upon confession. THE FACTOR OF IMMUNITY IN EXCHANGE FOR TESTIMONY Often, defendants confuse confessions in interrogations with the exchange of immunity or reduced charges to testify in criminal law. These are two different things. While you have the right to remain silent, if you choose to speak with a criminal defense attorney and answer his or her questions, that is your prerogative. A prosecutor can also override your Fifth Amendment rights by offering immunity from prosecution in exchange for your testimony in criminal law. THE TWO TYPES OF IMMUNITY FROM PROSECUTION Transactional Immunity – Transactional immunity is a very broad kind of immunity. It is so broad that it is referred to as “blanket” immunity. Any crime you confess to, including ones unrelated to the case, cannot be used against you in criminal law. “Use and Derivative Use” Immunity – Most prosecutors opt for this form of immunity because it is narrower and does not let a defendant get away with anything. The prosecution cannot, however, use your statements or any evidence derived from those declarations in a prosecution against you. However, it does not prevent them from gathering additional evidence and using it against you later. So, theoretically, you could still face criminal charges in criminal law. SPEAK WITH A CRIMINAL DEFENSE ATTORNEY BEFORE ACCEPTING ANY DEALS Whether you are being interrogated, you’re offered a deal, or you are being presented with an offer of immunity, it is imperative that you speak with a criminal defense attorney. top criminal defense attorneys

What and When Must Prosecutors Disclose Evidence?

Sealing a Criminal Record Versus Expunging the Record SHOULD YOU SEEK EXPUNGING OR SEALING YOUR CRIMINAL RECORD? A CRIMINAL DEFENSE LAWYER EXPLAINS. Often, sealing and expunction are confused for one another, but these are two very different processes with varying qualifications required under criminal law. If you seal a criminal record, you are engaging in judicial proceedings that will limit others’ access to the file. The record still exists, and certain parties could access it, but it is sealed from most individuals. An expunction (expungement), on the other hand, deletes the criminal record entirely under criminal law. Only certain circumstances allow for a criminal record to be sealed, and if you do have a record sealed, it will not appear on a regular criminal background check. The USA does not have a statute that applies to expunction; therefore, it is tough to perform a successful expunction of any criminal arrests. If you have been convicted of a crime, you cannot expunge your record in the state, regardless of the circumstances under criminal law. CAN YOU SEAL A CRIMINAL RECORD? Yes, you can. However, Statutes Section 32A-2-26 strictly governs it. A record can only be sealed if it is a juvenile criminal record under criminal law. Your criminal defense attorney must petition the court, and then your files can be sealed after the court determines that the juvenile is not a delinquent offender. If you are an adjudicated delinquent, you can still seal your juvenile criminal record, but your defense attorney must file a motion. You are required to wait two years before the records are sealed. There must also be no further convictions of a felony or misdemeanor in that two-year waiting period to qualify under criminal law. You can only apply for a record sealing if you are 18 years of age, or if there is just cause for sealing the record before reaching 18. Your sealed record is treated as if it were never there. EXPUNGING CRIMINAL ARREST RECORDS While you cannot expunge a criminal conviction or seal an adult criminal conviction, you may be able to expunge a criminal arrest record. You can petition the department to expunge the arrest information, but only if it was a misdemeanor offense that did not involve moral turpitude under criminal law. While there is no statute in place for record expunction, there are several questions in front of the Supreme Court regarding the matter. Hopefully, an ordinance will be created that specifically addresses record expunction under criminal law. In conclusion, sealing is only available for a juvenile criminal record, and only after the waiting period has been completed with no further crimes committed by that juvenile. A record expunction is available for an adult, but only for arrest records and minor crimes. An adult must prove that he or she was innocent at the time of the arrest to qualify for record expunction. WOULD YOU LIKE TO CLEAR UP A CRIMINAL RECORD? If you have a juvenile criminal record that is affecting your life, you may qualify for a record seal under criminal law. fraud attorney

5 Facts Every Defendant Should Know About the Criminal Process

Accomplices, Accessories, Aiders, and Abettors 101 ACCUSED OF ASSISTING WITH A CRIME? YOU NEED AN EXPERIENCED CRIMINAL DEFENSE TEAM ON YOUR SIDE Every state and federal statute has one hidden feature: Casual accomplices and the primary defendants both can face similar punishment. The state classifies criminals in many forms, including the principal offender, accomplice, accessory, aider, abettor, and the conspirator. These classifications depend on the person’s role in the crime. The primary offender is the person who commits the crime or intends to commit the crime in criminal law. However, the definitions become muddled when it moves down the line and examines accomplices, aiders, and the like in criminal law. WHAT IS AN ACCOMPLICE? Assisting persons who directly assist the principal offender are accomplices. An accomplice intentionally helps the principal offender to commit the crime, and knows what they are doing is wrong. Even if the accomplice does not carry out the criminal act, the law considers all pre-crime assistance enough for accomplice status in criminal law. The prosecution must prove that the accomplice intentionally aided the primary offender in the commission of the crime before, during, or after the actual criminal act. Realizing that the principal intends to commit a crime and not stopping them could constitute accomplice-like acts, as well in criminal law. THE MORE COMPLICATED ASSISTANT DEFINITIONS Once you pass as an accomplice, the definitions and classifications become more involved. All it takes is a single act or non-action to differentiate a person from one classification into the other. Some standard assistant definitions in criminal law include: Aider and Abettor – The aider and abettor is the principal in the second degree. They were present at the crime scene but carried out a passive role. Their role, however, ensured the crime was carried out. For example, a person watching out for witnesses during a bank robbery would be an aider and abettor in criminal law. Accessory Before the Fact – An accessory before the fact is a category of an accomplice who helps before the crime. They were not present at the crime scene but helped the principal prepare for the criminal act. Accessory After the Fact – Accessory after the fact is the person who knows the principal committed a felony and helped them avoid arrest or trial. They did not know about the crime or help prepare but instead help avoid prosecution. An accessory after the fact is not as harshly punished as an accessory before the fact or an aider and abettor in criminal law. Conspirator – Conspirators can consist of one or more people who agree to commit a criminal act together. Conspirators are all principals; therefore, they do not assist. Instead, they decide to commit a crime together. This is a highly controversial charge, however, because a conspirator does not have to commit the crime or follow through with the act in criminal law. AVOID THE HARSH PUNISHMENTS OF HELPING WITH A CRIME The crime of aiding and abetting means you have contributed to carry out a criminal offense in criminal law. The punishment for this offense is severe; therefore, it is best if you speak with a criminal defense attorney. Aiding or abetting a criminal act could result in a range of punishments, including a misdemeanor offense, jail time, and possibly a prison sentence if you help with a felony act in criminal law.